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Classification Characteristics and Selection Methods of Rubber Filler

Filler is one of the main raw materials of rubber industry and belongs to powder material. The amount of packing is quite large, almost equal to the amount of rubber itself. Rubber with filler is a heterogeneous material. Fillers can give many valuable properties to rubber. For example, greatly improve the mechanical properties of rubber, so that rubber has magnetic, conductive, flame retardant, color and other special properties, so that rubber has good processing performance, reduce costs and other functions.

What is reinforcement and filling?

Reinforcement: When a substance is added to the rubber, the wear resistance, tear resistance, tensile strength, modulus, swelling resistance and other properties of the vulcanizate are greatly improved. Any substance that has such a function is called a reinforcing agent.


Filling: When a substance is added to rubber, the volume of rubber can be increased, the cost of rubber products can be reduced, the processing performance can be improved, but the behavior of rubber products can not be obviously affected. Any substance that has such ability is called a filling agent. The most commonly used filler is inorganic filler. Such as clay, calcium carbonate, talcum powder, silicon aluminum carbon black and so on.

Carbon black is the most important reinforcing filler in rubber industry. It is no exaggeration to say that without the carbon black industry, there will be no modern rubber industry booming. The consumption of carbon black accounts for about half of the rubber consumption.

Of course, for a certain kind of filler is often a combination of two functions, one of which is the main role, such as adding clay to SBR, mainly filling, but also has a certain reinforcing effect.

Many inorganic fillers are mainly derived from minerals, and their prices are low, and their applications are more and more extensive. In the rubber industry, their consumption almost reached the level of carbon black. Especially the research and application of inorganic filler surface modification technology make the application of inorganic filler more extensive.

Rubber industry is used to call reinforcing carbon black as reinforcing agent, and inorganic filler without reinforcing effect as filling agent, which is classified according to action. The packings are classified by different methods as follows:

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Packing method

In the light of the above three principles, we first select a large class. For example, the first thing to decide whether to use powder filler or short fiber; with black or light color; with general or with special properties and so on.

Next, pick the variety. For example, in the red natural rubber tube filled with filler, because to be red, so choose white filler, cheap CaCO3 is better. Because the strength and elongation of the inner tube can not be too low, especially air tightness. So can not use too thick, should choose light CaCO3.

Examples of performance characteristics of packing

1. Reinforcing filler: The carbon black and silica with large specific surface area are reinforcing, such as N110, N121, N231, N234, N347, N356, M358, N375, VN3, etc.

Semi reinforcing fillers: N539, N630, N683, N787, etc.

2. Cost-reducing fillers: fillers with natural minerals or processed from waste residues, such as clay, calcium carbonate, silica-alumina-carbon black, fly ash, etc.

Classification of calcium carbonate

One is heavy calcium.

Heavy calcium carbonate produced by mechanical crushing of calcium carbonate minerals (marble, limestone, shells, etc.). The average size of the calcium carbonate is less than 44 micron. The particle size distribution is wide and the shape of the particles is irregular.


The other is light calcium.

Light calcium carbonate produced by chemical method. Because the specific method is to produce calcium carbonate precipitation through CO2 in lime milk, so it is also called precipitation calcium carbonate. The size of CaCO3 is small and the average particle size is less than a few microns, and the particle size distribution is narrow.

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3. Fillers with special functions: Sb2O3, A1 (OH) 3, Mg (OH) 2, MoO3, Fe2O3, etc. are flame retardant; conductive carbon black such as acetylene, N472, N293 and metal powder are conductive; ZnO and Fe2O3 are heat-resistant; TiO2 is the best whitening agent, BaSO4 and silica lime are also used; MgCO3, ZnCO 3 and transparent are the best transparency. White carbon and so on.

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